On Monday, the Census Bureau released long-awaited data from the 2020 census showing which states will gain seats in the House for the coming decade and which will see their congressional delegations shrink. In all, 13 states will feel the impact of population changes over the last 10 years, with six adding seats and seven losing representatives. These shifts are all reflected in the map above (with a larger version available here), but they contain some unexpected surprises compared to projections based on recent growth trends.
In a continuation of long-standing patterns, most of the increases in representation will be concentrated in Sun Belt states, with Texas once again leading the way in gaining two seats. However, while Florida looked likely to grow by two seats, it will only add one, and Arizona, which forecasts showed tacking on another seat, won’t pick up any.
Conversely, losses will largely show up in states in the Midwest and Northeast, though New York avoided shedding two seats and came just 89 people away from standing pat. California, meanwhile, will experience its first decline in seats in state history. Montana, which lost a seat after the 1990 census, will once more send two members to Washington, D.C., though Rhode Island, which appeared to be on track to end up with just a single at-large district, will hang on to both of its seats.
These shifts also affect the number of votes each state gets in the Electoral College, though they would not have altered the outcome of last year’s presidential election and instead would have narrowed Joe Biden’s 306-232 win slightly to 303-235. But the biggest impacts of the census won’t be known until congressional redistricting is complete, a process that, thanks to delays in the production of necessary data, won’t begin until August at the earliest and will likely last through a good part of next year.
We do know, however, that Republicans will once again dominate the redistricting process, just as they did following the 2010 census: As shown on the map below (see here for a larger version), GOP lawmakers in the states will be able to draw new maps for anywhere from 38% to 46% of all districts while Democrats will control the process for just 16% of seats (the remainder will likely be drawn by nonpartisan entities or through bipartisan compromise). To stay on top of the mapmaking process as it unfolds, subscribe to our free weekly newsletter, the Voting Rights Roundup.